Advocacy materials

  • Mainstreaming HIV in Education
  • HIV and the World of Work
  • Advocacy from the Ground Up: A Toolkit for Strengthening Local Responses-1
  • The toolkit provides a guide to a wide range of activities with resources and reference materials for both trainers and participants. It is   intended to broadly elaborate on the concept of advocacy and how it plays a key role in effective HIV interventions and AIDS services. It is currently being used to structure advocacy capacity initiatives for the ongoing Community Advocacy Initiative (CAI) project.
  • Handbook for Advocacy Planning
  • This handbook assists in developing advocacy activities through a series of highly specialized actions. Associations must analyze political processes, state structure, current legislation at the various government levels, international commitments, and the social, economic, geopolitical, and human development context.
  • The human cost of global health cuts in H.R. 1
  • Funding for AIDS treatment for 448,866 people would be eliminated, resulting in a halt to treatment expansion and deeper cuts in HIV prevention and other areas in an effort to avoid removing current patients from lifesaving treatment. 299,294 orphans and vulnerable children could lose their food, education, and livelihood assistance. 20,000 more infants could be infected with HIV each year due to reductions in services to combat mother-to-child HIV transmission. Nearly 3.9 million fewer people would be treated for malaria and 2 million fewer insecticide-treated mosquito nets would be available, with increased loss of life from malaria felt overwhelmingly among children under five. 51,822 fewer people with tuberculosis would receive lifesaving treatment, seriously endangering their lives as well as other people’s due to the contagious nature of this illness.

Demographic and Health Surveys


    • UNFPA Demographic perspectives on FGM
    • Wilson, applying the footbinding model to FGM-C
    • Okemwa et al, FGM-C among the Kisii, Kenya
    • Female genital mutilation in Africa
    • BMGF:The Impact of Social Norms on Outcomes for Adolescent Girls
    • What are Social Norms
    • De l’approche santé à l’approche basée sur les droits humains : Lutte contre les Mutilations Génitales Féminines en Gambie, en Guinée, au Mali et au Sénégal
    • Dynamics of change in FGC/M in Senegambia: Testing predictions of social convention theory
    • We use data from a three year mixed-method study of behavior change that began in 2004 in Senegal and The Gambia to explicitly test predictions generated by social convention theory. Analyses of 300 in-depth interviews, 28 focus group discussions, and survey data from 1220 women show that FGC is most often only indirectly related to marriageability via concerns over preserving virginity. Instead we find strong evidence for an alternative convention, namely a peer convention. We propose that being circumcised serves as a signal to other circumcised women that a girl or woman has been trained to respect the authority of her circumcised elders and is worthy of inclusion in their social network. In this manner, FGC facilitates the accumulation of social capital by younger women and of power and prestige by elder women. Based on this new evidence and reinterpretation of social convention theory, we suggest that interventions aimed at eliminating FGC should target women’s social networks, which are inter-generational, and include both men and women.
    • Contingency and Change in the Practice of FGC: Dynamics of Decision-making in Senegambia
    • Dynamics for the Effective Elimination of Female Genital Cutting in Senegal
    • Policy Dialogue on RH/HIV/AIDS with Afro-Arab Parliamentarians Nairobi, 4th August 2009. Content: 1. Background 2. The Senegalese Initiative 3. Program Implementation 4. Program Evaluation 5. Findings and Program Impacts 6. Lessons Learned.
    • Plate-forme d’action pour l’abandon de l’excision/génitale féminine (E/MGF)
    • Depuis 2001, le Groupe de travail des donateurs sur l’E/MGF regroupe d’importantes organisations gouvernementales, intergouvernementales et fondations engagées en faveur de l’abandon de l’E/MGF. Grâce aux échanges d’expériences et à leur analyse systématique, nous sommes parvenus à un consensus sur une approche programmatique commune pour appuyer l’abandon de cette pratique et changer substantiellement la vie des filles et des femmes à travers le monde. Cette plateforme d’action en résume les éléments constitutifs. Avec un appui relativement modeste et en élargissant les partenariats visant à appliquer cette approche, il est possible de réduire de manière significative l’E/MGF au cours de la décennie à venir.
    • La programmation pour la protection et le développement devrait engager les populations en tant qu’acteurs de leur propre développement. L’approche de l’UNICEF à la protection de l’enfance - bâtir un environnement protecteur pour les enfants - reconnaît à la fois le rôle crucial que les enfants et leurs gardiens sont capables de jouer quant à la promotion de changements au sein de leur communauté, ainsi que l’importance de maintenir un dialogue ouvert. L’évaluation de ces approches, y compris le fait de porter une attention particulière aux résultats quantitatifs, s’est souvent révélée un projet ambitieux.
    • Programming for protection and development should engage populations as actors in their own development. UNICEF’s approach to child protection - building a protective environment for children - recognizes the importance of the capacities of children and their caregivers, as well as the significance of open dialogue to promote change within communities. Evaluating such approaches, including a hard look at quantitative outcomes, has often proved challenging.
    • In 1998-1999, a village empowerment programme was implemented in the Thiès / Fatick and Kolda regions of Senegal by the non-governmental organization Tostan. This report is the qualitative component of an evaluation conducted at the request of UNICEF to assess the impact of this programme several years after its implementation. The overall responsibility of the evaluation was given to Macro International.
    • COORDINATED STRATEGY TO ABANDON FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION/CUTTING IN ONE GENERATION “Every year, three million girls […] are subjected to genital mutilation/cutting, a dangerous and potentially life-threatening procedure that causes unspeakable pain and suffering.1 This practice violates girls’ and women’s basic human rights, denying them of their physical and mental integrity, their right to freedom from violence and discrimination, and in the most extreme case, of their life.”
    • Female genital mutilation and obstetric outcome: WHO collaborative prospective study in six African FGM consists of all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural or other non-therapeutic reasons.1 It is common in several countries, predominantly in Africa, and more than 100 million women and girls are estimated to have had FGM worldwide. Whether obstetric outcomes differ between women who have and those who have not had FGM is unclear, since previous studies have been small and methodologically limited, so have been unable to provide reliable evidence, especially in relation to important outcomes, such as perinatal death.2–6 The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different types of FGM on a range of maternal and neonatal outcomes during and immediately after delivery.
    • The TOSTAN Program: Evaluation of a Community Based Education Program in Senegal This operations research project evaluated the effect and impact of a basic education program, developed by TOSTAN, a non-governmental organization based at Thiès, Senegal. The basic education program consists of four modules: hygiene, problem solving, women’s health, and human rights. Through these four themes, emphasis was placed on enabling the participants, who were mostly women, to analyze their own situation more effectively and thus find the best solutions for themselves.
    • RENFORCEMENT DES CAPACITES VILLAGEOISE: Evaluation du Pogramme TOSTAN au Sénégal Cette recherche opérationnelle a été menée pour évaluer l'impact d'un programme de renforcement des capacités villageoises conçu et mis en oeuvre par TOSTAN dans la région de Kolda. TOSTAN est une organisation non gouvernementale basée à Thiès (Sénégal), dont le programme d’éducation est composé de quatre modules : l’hygiène, la résolution des problèmes, la santé et les droits humains.

    Capacity Building and Knowledge Management

    Early and forced marriage


    By Mariana Kruger, Paul Ndebele, Lyn Horn The aim of this book is to provide research ethics committee members with a resource that focuses on research ethics issues in Africa. The authors are currently active in various aspects of research ethics in Africa and the majority have been trained in the past by either the Fogarty International Center or Europe and Developing Countries Clinical Trial Partnership (EDCTP) sponsored bioethics training programmes . . .

    Global Health